User Tools

Site Tools


en:infra-convert:user:terms
User manual infra CONVERT 2019 > More

Terms


Important terms are explained in the following.

Category (characteristic-)

→Characteristics are handled differently depending on their relevance in tests. The classification is undertaken by assigning a category. The default six categories are fixed because they are directly linked to recognition routines. They may be named differently. A further gradation of the examination relevance can be made by assigning →Tags.

Note Categories do not replace one-to-one the “feature types” used in infra - CONVERT. Characteristic types were not automatically recognized and assigned, except to a limited extent in later program versions the “Feature type 1 - Special features”. If user-defined characteristic types were defined there that do not correspond to one of the categories in infra CONVERT 2019, you can now work with tags in this sense.

The following categories can be assigned in infra CONVERT 2019:

Category Description References
Standard characteristic Characteristic that is not assigned to any of the following categories.
Special characteristic A critical characteristic that deserves special attention. If the implementation of the characteristic does not correspond to the drawing specifications, a potential risk to functions (operational safety, interchangeability, service life, etc.) has to be expected to a great extent.

Example of tagging:
Auxiliary measurement Measurement that is not required for the geometric determination of a part and is not considered an integral part of the contract.

Example for the tagging:
• DIN 406-10:1992-12
Rough measurement Measurement that refers to the initial state of an object.

Example for the tagging:
• DIN 406-10:1992-12
Theoretically accurate measurement Measurement for indication of the geometrically ideal (theoretically precise) position or shape of the dimensioned shape element.

Example for the tagging:
• DIN 406-10:1992-12
Test measurement Measurement that must be given special attention when determining the extent of the test / test accuracy.

Example for the tagging:
• DIN 406-10:1992-12




CAQ/MES

The business processes within manufacturing companies are controlled using management systems. Today, these are almost completely realized with powerful information systems. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the higher-level control system of a company. The efficient use of resources is planned and controlled with this, see the following figure; resources can include capital, personnel, resources, infrastructure, materials, etc.

The personnel resources (management, process engineers, maintenance personnel, machine operators, etc.) and material resources (production means: manufacturing equipment, measurement devices, transportation means, packaging materials etc.) on the production level must be managed preferably in real time due to the continuously increasing complexity, speed and quality requirements of adequately efficient management information systems. The ERP system is unsuitable for process-oriented, process-specific tasks due to the requirements of company-wide data management (size, “inertia”). Task-related management systems are therefore interposed between the corporate management and production level. Collectively these are referred to as the Manufacturing Execution System (MES). MES functionalities support, among other things, detailed planning, implementation and control of production processes.

Company objectives relating to quality assurance and enhancement are today being increasingly supported by Computer Aided Quality Management (CAQ). Quality-related parameters can be analyzed and documented along the entire product life cycle in order to derive corrective measures from the results if necessary. Therefore, they are an important instrument in the MES.




Characteristic (test-, quality-)

Quality-relevant demands on a product (individual component, module) are essentially of a geometric and material nature. The geometry of a workpiece (or a module) is determined by the creation and modification (transformation, reproduction, referencing) of construction elements on a step by step basis (also: geometric primitives, shape elements, user defined features). Creation and modification operations require special parameters for unique identifiability, such as diameter and length of a cylinder. These are presented on the technical drawing together with other identifying information, such as material and surface specifications. The manufacturing and testing processes are based on these characteristics, as they are especially referred to in testing.

A differentiation is made between variable and attributive characteristics for test tasks here:

Variable characteristics are requirements that can be quantified. These relate to values that are associated with a tolerance and can be queried with a numerical value and a unit (→(Size-)measurements).

Attributive characteristics can only be assessed qualitatively. They are queried with fulfilled/not fulfilled or OK/NOK. Examples include “All edges deburred.”, “Pin holes drilled in composite.”, “Protection class IP 44”.

Characteristics can also be sorted by →Classes.




Class (characteristic-)

The specification of →characteristics in the technical drawings follows defined rules. Such rules are laid down in international and national norms, but also company publications (factory standards). Misunderstandings are avoided between the customer and the supplier when reference is made to rules of interpretation, despite a reduction in the documentation effort required. A class refers to a rule and thus specifies the context in which the characteristic properties are to be understood.

The classes listed at this point, sorted into the following groups, can be assigned in infra CONVERT 2019. The classes relate to recognised standards (see “References” column). Unless otherwise stated, the unit of measurement always applies to tolerance limits as well.

Note Class designations and associated measurement units can be changed by your CAQ system provider or administrator, see Administrator’s Guide infra CONVERT 2019 > Configuration and Import > "CharacteristicClasses” parameter file. We would be pleased to add another class should you require it.
Note Sorting by groups will also be applied in the software in the future.


Classes: lengths and angles

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Length Linear expansion of a geometric element or linear distance between geometric elements.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
• DIN 406-12:1992
• DIN EN ISO 286-1:2010
0 200
Angle Difference in the direction of two half-lines in the plane originating from a common point

Standard measurement unit Degrees

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
• DIN 406-12:1992
• DIN 1315:1982
2 203
Coordinates Designation of the positions of points in the range. The coordinate measurements relate to a coordinate origin. Cartesian and polar coordinate systems are mostly used.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-11:1992 65 117
X coordinate Length measurement on the X axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres
• DIN 406-11:1992 57 120
Y coordinate Length measurement on the Y axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres
• DIN 406-11:1992 58 121
Z coordinate Length measurement on the Z axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres
• DIN 406-11:1992 59 122


Classes: simple geometries

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Radius Distance between the centre of a circle and the circumference.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 250:2002
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
1 201
Spherical radius Distance between the centre of a sphere and the sphere surface.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 250:2002
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
80 210
Diameter Largest possible distance between two points on a circumference.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
2 202
Spherical diameter Largest possible distance between two points on a sphere surface.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
81 210
Square Edge length of a square shape.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
82
Width across flats Distance between two parallel surfaces, which is mostly used for positioning wrenches.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
83
Slope (gradient) Slope ratio of an oblique line or area.

Standard measurement unit

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
84
Slope (gradient) in % Slope ratio of an oblique line or area.

Standard measurement unit Percent

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
85
Tapering Slope ratio of a pointed or blunt cone or flat surfaces standing symmetrically at an angle to each other.

Standard measurement unit –

Example:
• DIN 406-11:1992 86
Tapering in % Slope ratio of a pointed or blunt cone or flat surfaces standing symmetrically at an angle to each other.

Standard measurement unit Percent

Example:
• DIN 406-11:1992 87
Cone angle Point angle of a pointed or blunt cone.

Standard measurement unit Degrees

Example:
6 206
Arc Length of an arched line.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
88
Ellipse large ∅ Largest diameter of an ellipse.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
5 204
Ellipse small ∅ Smallest diameter of an ellipse.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
4 205


Classes: geometric tolerance (shape, direction, position and run)

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Straightness Permissible shape deviation of a line or group of lines from a reference line or reference lines.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 12780-1:2014
7 100
Flatness Permissible shape deviation of a surface from a reference plane.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 12781-1:2011
8 101
Roundness Permissible shape deviation of a circular line or group of circular lines from a reference circle or reference circles.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 12781-1:2011
9 102
Cylindricity Permissible shape deviation of a cylindrical surface from a reference cylinder.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 12180-1:2011
10 103
Line profile Permissible deviation of a profile line or group of profile lines from a reference line profile or from reference line profiles.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 1660:2013
11 104
Surface profile Permissible deviation of a profile surface from a reference surface profile.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 1660:2013
12 105
Parallelism Permissible deviation in direction of a line, group of lines or plane from one or several reference lines or plane(s) oriented parallel to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 13 108
Perpendicularity Permissible deviation in direction of a line, group of lines or plane from one or several reference lines or plane(s) oriented perpendicular to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 14 107
Inclination Permissible deviation in direction of a line, group of lines or plane from one or several reference lines or plane(s) oriented angular (but not perpendicular) to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 15 106
Position Permissible positional deviation of a point, axis or plane from a reference point, reference line or plane positioned to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014
• DIN EN ISO 5458:1999
22 109
Concentricity Permissible positional deviation of a point from a reference point concentric to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 21 110
Coaxiality Permissible positional deviation of straight line from a straight reference line coaxial to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 89 663
Symmetry Permissible positional deviation of a point, group of points, straight line or plane from one or several reference point(s) or plane(s) lying symmetrical to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 20 111
Radial concentric run-out Permissible radial running deviation of a circular line or group of circular lines to one or several reference circle(s) that lies coaxial to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 16 112
Axial concentric run-out Permissible axial running deviation of a circular line or group of circular lines to one or several reference circle(s) that lies coaxial to it. Also called lateral run.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 17 118
Radial total concentric run-out Permissible radial running deviation of a rotational surface to a rotational surface that lies coaxial to it.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 18 113
Axial total concentric run-out Permissible axial running deviation of a plane or rotational surface to a plane or rotational surface that lies coaxial to it. Also called total lateral run.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN EN ISO 1101:2014 19


Classes: thread

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Thread Fastening or transmission threads of various systems, e.g. metric ISO thread or inch ISO pipe thread.

Standard measurement unit –

Example:
• DIN 202:1999
• DIN ISO 6410:1993
38


Classes: gearwheels

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Pitch diameter Diameter of the pitch circle / cylinder of a gearwheel.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978 90
Root circle diameter Diameter of a gearwheel in root height of the teeth.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978 91 612
Tip circle diameter Diameter of a gearwheel in tip height of the teeth.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978
• DIN 3966-2:1978
92 610
Tooth thickness Thickness of a gearwheel tooth on the pitch circle / pitch cylinder.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978
• DIN 3966-2:1978
120 211
Tooth width Tooth width over a number of k measurement teeth or measurement gaps.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978
• DIN 3966-2:1978
94 216
Gap width Tooth gap width on the pitch circle / pitch cylinder.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 3966-1:1978
• DIN 3966-2:1978
95 617


Classes: edge conditions

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
Edge with indeterminate shape Workpiece edge without a precisely determined shape. A deviation from an ideal geometric shape is permissible depending on burr and breakage direction as well as edge dimension.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN ISO 13715:2000 34
Chamfer Workpiece edge in the form of a specific, chamfered surface.

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
33
Curve Workpiece edge in the form of a specific, rounded surface.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres

Example:
• DIN 406-10:1992
• DIN 406-11:1992
35
Edge Workpiece edge. Specification without reference to a standard.

Standard measurement unit Millimeter (mm)
36


Classes: surface parameters

Structure of drawing entries

The requirements of surface properties are entered into the drawing using a graphical symbol. The position and structure of the fields for individual entries is determined as follows (cf. DIN EN ISO 1302:2002-06):


Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Smoothing depth (peak) Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Height of the largest profile peak within the measuring section ln.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
96
Smoothing depth (valley) Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Depth of the largest profile valley within the measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
97
Average roughness depth Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Sum of the height of the largest profile peak and the depth of the largest profile valley within a single measurement section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
23 150
Maximum average roughness depth This parameter is a variation of the regular requirement for the average roughness depth. The specified variable is not to be interpreted with the 16 % rule, but with the maximum value rule. “Rmax” is also commonly used as an indicator.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres
• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
31 158
Average profile element height Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Average value of the height of the profile elements within a single measuring section.
A profile element is formed based on a consecutive profile valley and a profile peak.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
98
Total height Vertical parameter of the primary profile. Sum of the height of the largest profile peak and the depth of the largest profile valley within the section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
26 153
Total height Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Sum of the height of the largest profile peak and the depth of the largest profile valley within the section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
93
Total height Vertical parameter of the waviness profile. Sum of the height of the largest profile peak and the depth of the largest profile valley within the section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
30 157
Arithmetic average roughness value Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Arithmetic average of the sums of the amplitude values within a single measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
25 152
Quadratic average roughness value Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Quadratic average of the amplitude values within a single measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
99
Profile skew Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Measurement for the asymmetry of the amplitude density curve within a single measuring section.
The amplitude density curve reflects the amplitude part in each horizontal sectional plane.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
100
Profile steepness Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Measurement for the steepness of the amplitude density curve within a single measuring section.
The amplitude density curve reflects the amplitude part in each horizontal sectional plane.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
101
Average groove width Horizontal parameter of the roughness profile. Average value of the profile elements within a single measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
102
Peak count Horizontal parameter of the roughness profile. Number of average widths of the profile elements in a predefined length, standard 10mm.

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
103
Average profile gradient Mixed (vertical and horizontal) parameter of the roughness profile. Quadratic average of the local profile gradient within a single measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
104
Material share Parameter from the Abbott-Firestone curve (AF curve) of the primary profile. Material share in a cutting line height relative to the share in a reference cutting line height.
The AF curve reflects the cumulative frequency of the amplitude values within a measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Percent
• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
70 160
Material share Parameter from the Abbott-Firestone curve (AF curve) of the roughness profile. Material share in a cutting line height relative to the share in a reference cutting line height.
The AF curve reflects the cumulative frequency of the amplitude values within a measuring section.

Standard measurement unit Percent

• DIN EN ISO 4287:2010
• DIN EN ISO 4288:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
105 193
Core roughness depth Parameter of the roughness core profile. Total height of the roughness core profile within the measuring section.
The roughness core profile is the roughness profile without projecting peaks and deep valleys.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
27 154
Smallest material share Parameter of the roughness core profile. Material share in percent at the level of the cutting line, which separates the projecting peaks from the roughness core profile.
The roughness core profile is the roughness profile without projecting peaks and deep valleys.

Standard measurement unit Percent

• DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
71 161
Largest material share Parameter of the roughness core profile. Material share in percent at the level of the cutting line, which separates the deep valleys from the roughness core profile.
The roughness core profile is the roughness profile without projecting peaks and deep valleys.

Standard measurement unit Percent

• DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
72 162
Reduced peak height Average height of the projecting peaks above the roughness core profile.
The roughness core profile is the roughness profile without projecting peaks and deep valleys.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
28 155
Reduced groove depth Average depth of the profile valleys below the roughness core profile.
The roughness core profile is the roughness profile without projecting peaks and deep valleys.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

• DIN EN ISO 13565-2:1998
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002
29 156
Base roughness depth Vertical parameter of the roughness profile. Amplitude value of the third highest profile peak from the third largest profile valley.

Standard measurement unit Micrometres

Not officially standardised. 32 159
Additional surface specifications Machining allowance, position and orientation of surface grooves.

Standard measurement unit –
• DIN EN ISO 1302:2002 118
Layer thickness Material thickness of one or more coatings over a surface.

Standard measurement unit Millimetres
64 260


Classes: material properties

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Material Material, identifiable by a unique abbreviation or number.

Standard measurement unit –
74
Volumes in mm³ Spatial contents of a geometric body.

Standard measurement unit Cubic millimetres
106 270
Volumes in cm³ Spatial contents of a geometric body.

Standard measurement unit Cubic centimetres
107 270
Volumes in dm³ Spatial contents of a geometric body.

Standard measurement unit Cubic decimetres
108 270
Volumes in m³ Spatial contents of a geometric body.

Standard measurement unit Cubic metres
65 270
Mass in g Property of a body specified by density and volume.

Standard measurement unit Grams
109 280
Mass in kg Property of a body specified by density and volume.

Standard measurement unit Kilograms
66 280
Hardness Hardness of a material. No defined parameters.

Standard measurement unit –
110 285
Brinell hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Brinell hardness test. The parameter is determined from the impression diameter of a carbide ball (loaded with the test force F) at a diameter D in the sample surface.

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6506-1:2015 39
Rockwell hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Rockwell hardness test (hardness scale A). The parameter is determined from the penetration depth h of a diamond cone with the cone angle 120°, which is generated by the additional force F1 (the penetration depth generated by the advance test force F0 that is applied simultaneously is deducted from the total penetration depth here).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6508-1:2016 40
Rockwell hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Rockwell hardness test (hardness scale B). The parameter is determined from the penetration depth h of a carbide ball with the diameter D, which is generated by the additional force F1 (the penetration depth generated by the advance test force F0 that is applied simultaneously is deducted from the total penetration depth here).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6508-1:2016 41
Rockwell hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Rockwell hardness test (hardness scale C). The parameter is determined from the penetration depth h of a diamond cone with the cone angle 120°, which is generated by the additional force F1 (the penetration depth generated by the advance test force F0 that is applied simultaneously is deducted from the total penetration depth here).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6508-1:2016 42
Rockwell hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Rockwell hardness test (hardness scale F). The parameter is determined from the penetration depth h of a carbide ball with the diameter D, which is generated by the additional force F1 (the penetration depth generated by the advance test force F0 that is applied simultaneously is deducted from the total penetration depth here).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6508-1:2016 43
Vickers hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the Vickers hardness test. The parameter is determined from the impression diagonal diameter of a diamond pyramid (with a quadratic base and a point angle of 136°), which is loaded with the test force F, in the sample surface

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 6507-1 44
Martens hardness Parameter for the hardness of a material, ascertained in the penetration test. The parameter is determined from the values of the force-penetration-depth curve, which is recorded during the penetration of a test body (various shapes and materials are permissible) under the force F.

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 14577-1:2015 45
Ball indentation hardness Parameter for the hardness of plastics, ascertained in the ball indentation test. The parameter corresponds to the quotient on the test force F1 (in N) and the spherical cap surface A (in mm²) of the indentation after a defined time (the surface is calculated from the penetration depth h and the ball diameter. The penetration depth h is measured after the advance test force F0 is applied).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 2039-1:2003 46
Shore hardness Parameter for the hardness of plastics, ascertained in the Shore hardness test (type A durometer).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 868:2003 47
Shore hardness Parameter for the hardness of plastics, ascertained in the Shore hardness test (type D durometer).

Standard measurement unit –

• DIN EN ISO 868:2003 48
Proof strength in MPa Material parameter of a tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a continuous stress-strain curve. It indicates the stress R, which occurs in relation to the (initial) cross section of the specimen S0 at 0.1% plastic strain e.

Standard measurement unit Megapascals

• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 49
Proof strength in MPa Material parameter of a tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a continuous stress-strain curve. It indicates the stress R, which occurs in relation to the (initial) cross section of the specimen S0 at 0.2% plastic strain e.

Standard measurement unit Megapascals

• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 50
Proof strength in MPa Material parameter of a tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a continuous stress-strain curve. It indicates the stress R, which occurs in relation to the (initial)cross section of the specimen S0 at 1.0% plastic strain e.

Standard measurement unit Megapascals

• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 51
Yield strength in MPa Material parameter of a metallic tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a pronounced stress-strain curve. It indicates the highest stress R, at which a first significant drop in the stress is encountered.

Standard measurement unit Megapascals

• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 52
Yield strength in MPa Material parameter of a metallic tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a pronounced stress-strain curve. It indicates the lowest stress R during the plastic flow (Lüders strain)

Standard measurement unit Megapascals

• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 53
Tensile strength in MPa Material parameter of a tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a pronounced or continuous stress-strain curve. It indicates the stress R at maximum force absorption.

Example of a pronounced stress-strain curve:


Standard measurement unit Megapascals
• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 54
Elongation at break in % Material parameter of a tensile test specimen determined in a tensile test with a pronounced or continuous stress-strain curve. It indicates the plastic specimen strain e in %, at which the sample breaks.

Example of a pronounced stress-strain curve:


Standard measurement unit Percent
• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 55
Notch impact energy In a standardized procedure, e.g. the Charpy test, determined material characteristic. It indicates the impact energy consumed in the fracture of a mostly notched specimen.

Standard measurement unit Joule

Simplified example of the Charpy impact test using a pendulum impact tester and a V-notched sample (K = consumed impact energy, Kp1 = potential initial energy, Kp2 = residual energy):


Note Available from program version 1.2.0.32
• DIN EN ISO 148-1 129


Classes: physical sizes

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Time in s Time period between two events.

Standard measurement unit Seconds
111 800
Time in min Time period between two events.

Standard measurement unit Minutes
112 800
Time in h Time period between two events.

Standard measurement unit Hours
113 800
Force in N External influence on a body that can deform and accelerate it.

Standard measurement unit Newtons
67 282
Force in kN External influence on a body that can deform and accelerate it.

Standard measurement unit Kilonewtons
67 282
Torque in Nm External influence on torsion, determined by the product of the impacting force and the radial distance from the centre.

Standard measurement unit Newton metres
• DIN 6790-1:2008 37 301
Pressure in bar Normal stress acting equally in all spatial directions.

Standard measurement unit Bar
63 255
Temperature in °C Temperature, specified in degrees Celsius.

Standard measurement unit Degrees Celsius
61 250
Temperature in °F Temperature, specified in degrees Fahrenheit.

Standard measurement unit Degrees Fahrenheit
62 251
Spring rate in N/m Parameter for the rigidity of a spring, specified as the ratio of the acting force to deflection.

Standard measurement unit Newtons per metre
60 220
Rotational speed in 1/s Angular velocity of a rotating body, specified in revolutions or angles per unit of time.

Standard measurement unit Per second
• DIN ISO 21940-2:2017 115 350
Rotational speed in 1/min Angular velocity of a rotating body, specified in revolutions or angles per unit of time.

Standard measurement unit Per minute
• DIN ISO 21940-2:2017 116 350
Imbalance Deviation of a rotating body caused by centrifugal force.

Standard measurement unit –
69 300
Viscosity Viscosity of a liquid or gas.

Standard measurement unit –
68 290


Classes: further information

Class Symbol/​tag Description References
(Selection)
ID
ELIAS K2009
Production process Process of manufacturing workpieces by attaining the initial forms from a formless state, changing these forms, and altering material properties.

Standard measurement unit
• DIN EN ISO 6892-1:2017 117
Text entry Drawing entry in text form (characters, symbols, words, word groups, paragraphs, sentences, etc.) with or without direct reference to a characteristic.

Standard measurement unit
• DIN 6790-1:2008 75 310
Welding joint Specification of the requirements for a seam to be produced by welding, e.g. As type, thickness, length, quality, surface treatment, welding filler, testing requirements.

Standard measurement unit –

Note Available from program version 1.2.0.32
130
Solder joint Specification of the requirements for a seam to be produced by soldering, e.g. type, thickness, length, quality, surface treatment, solder, test requirements.

Standard measurement unit –

Note Available from program version 1.2.0.32
133
Marking Fixed or detachable with a workpiece or assembly to be connected in plain text or machine-readable information.

Standard measurement unit –

Note Available from program version 1.2.0.32
131
Function Task to be performed by the workpiece or assembly.

Standard measurement unit –

Note Available from program version 1.2.0.32
132
Undefined No class is defined.

Standard measurement unit –

Not Available from program version 1.2.0.32
-1 0




Collective Drawing

A →technical drawing is referred to as a collective drawing if several variants of a similar component or assembly, each with its own part number, are grouped together in this document. (see DIN 30:2002-12)

Usually only one of the component variants or a generic component, which contains all properties in one characteristic, is displayed graphically. The variable properties are indicated with a code letter (also: “dimension letter”) and called up in a table.




Drawing (technical)

A Technical drawing is part of the technical product documentation. It includes technical information, which is usually displayed graphically on an information medium to scale as well as two-dimensional and based on the agreed rules. (see DIN EN ISO 10209:2012)




Drawing sheet

A Drawing sheet is a section of a →Technical drawing, which has the same parts number as other sections, but its own representation and storage. (see DIN EN ISO 7200:2004)

The following terms apply to the structure of drawing sheets:




Drawing data format

Various data formats have been established for the digital exchange of →technical drawings. Each data format transports at least the graphic information of a drawing printed on paper. In addition, vector formats and especially specially developed drawing data formats store information that facilitates automated readout by computer programs.

Basically, a technical drawing is constructed according to largely internationally defined standards from linear graphic elements as well as text elements. The reader derives the meaning from the arrangement of the elements in relation to each other. However, this kind of interpretation work can only be implemented by software to a very limited extent. For this reason, additional information is stored in drawing data formats, which indicates to a software that the elements belong together and what they mean.

The suitability of different data formats for automated interpretation can be generalized as follows:

In infra CONVERT 2019, a CAD exchange format is the minimum requirement for fully automatic feature recognition.

Raster graphic formats only transport the graphic information addressed to the reader. Software can only retrieve the stored information (“pattern recognition”) by relating the pixels to one another. Actually used technologies concentrate on text recognition, the so-called “Optical Character Recognition” (OCR). They have a recognition rate of about 50 to 70 %, at least in the area of technical drawings.

In infra CONVERT 2019, drawings in raster graphic format can be stamped manually using the quick input dialog.

See
Functions > Characteristics > Manually stamp

Vector graphic formats, on the other hand, store graphic elements as unique, mathematically described graphic primitives. The latter mean basic geometric elements such as straight lines, arcs, and splines, as well as surfaces such as circles, polygons, and spline surfaces. Texts are stored either as polylines or with the help of character encoding (see also →Font).

In infra CONVERT 2019, character-coded texts or embedded fonts are a prerequisite for automatic feature recognition.

The PDF format (PDF = “Portable Document Format”) supports raster-based and vector-based data storage. Coded text characters are stored in text fields, such as “⌀ 20” in the adjacent example.

In infra CONVERT 2019, drawings in raster-based PDF format can be stamped manually using the quick input dialog. Drawings in vector-based PDF format can be stamped automatically* if the characters are coded.

* A pro license is required.

See
Functions > Characteristics > Manually stamp
Functions > Characteristics > Automatic stamping

With the PDF format it should be noted that not all CAD systems export all characters encoded - usually special characters -, but as geometric elements. The suitability for automated readability is reduced accordingly.


You can test whether a PDF contains coded text with a PDF reader. For example, open the PDF with Adobe Acrobat Reader, activate the selection tool, and move the pointer to a text. If the cursor changes to an and you can select the text, it is coded text.


CAD formats store data largely based on design elements. Views, hatches, dimension entries etc. remain recognizable as such for a processing software, such as the dimension entry for the diameter 20 of the cylinder in the adjacent example.

In infra CONVERT 2019 drawings can be processed in DXF format (“Drawing Interchange File Format”, worldwide and neutral industry standard), in DWG format (Autodesk's own format, also supported by most CAD systems) or in IGES format* (“Initial Graphics Exchange Specification”).

* A license for the IGES module is required.

Note The multicolored representation of native CAD drawing formats has the background that the colors encode line widths. In the early days of CAD, different line widths could only be displayed poorly on the screen using the technology of the time. An ink pen was assigned to a color on the plotter. An assignment table for line widths (“pentable”) is usually not exported to the usual exchange formats. For better legibility, infra CONVERT 2019 therefore displays drawings in monochrome (“black on white”) as standard.




Font

Non-graphic information is specified in technical drawings using characters. Characters can be letters, numbers, diacritics, punctuation marks, and additional graphic symbols. Due to their frequent repetition, they are grouped into a stock, the character set. In electronic data processing, characters are uniquely identified by coding in a character set. Numerous standards exist worldwide for character coding. “ASCII” is an example of a very small set, “Unicode” an example of a very large set to which characters are continuously added. A digital character set is called a font. A font file usually contains a character set with a uniform graphic design.

In addition to the purely visual representation of characters, the unambiguous definition of characters is important for the automatic analysis of technical drawings. PDF files are generally used to displaying characters correctly. This is because the character definitions used are saved (embedded) in the file. This is (unfortunately) different with the CAD exchange formats DXF, DWG and IGES. In them only the references to characters are stored in font files. The font files are therefore required for correct display.

Significance for infra CONVERT 2019 Fonts are protected by copyright. In most cases, the rights of use are only granted for a fee. The number of fonts used by CAD systems is immensely high. Supplying these fonts would disproportionately increase the cost of infra CONVERT 2019 licenses. For this reason, infra CONVERT 2019 replaces fonts not installed on the computer with visually similar fonts when loading drawing files. If this is the case, a note message is issued.




Measurement (sizes-)

(Size-)measurements are used to specify geometric and other physical properties of a product (→variables Merkmal)

(Größen-)Maße spezifizieren quantifizierbare geometrischer und andere physikalische Eigenschaften eines Produkts (→variable characteristic). They are expressed as the multiple or part (numerical value) of a reference value (unit of measurement):

Size = Numerical value × Unit of measurement

The following graphic explains some of the terms used in infra CONVERT 2019 for linear measurements and measurement tolerances.

In infra CONVERT 2019, the unit of measurement is assigned to a characteristic using the characteristic class. The following units with attachments for decimal parts and multiples from different unit systems are available.

Note Your CAQ system provider or administrator can change class names and associated units of measurement for you, see Administrator's Manual infra CONVERT 2019 > Configuration and Import > Parameter File “CharacteristicClasses”.

Note Your CAQ system provider or administrator can change class names and associated units of measurement for you, see Administrator's Manual infra CONVERT 2019 > Configuration and Import > Parameter file "CharacteristicClasses".
Size type Unit name Unit-
symbol
Reference ID
Length, distance Micrometer µm DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Micrometer
Millimetre mm DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Millimeter
Centimetre cm DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Centimeter
Decimetre*¹ dm DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Decimeter
Metre m DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Meter
Mikroinch µin [NIST-19] Microinch
Milliinch mil [NIST-19] Mil
Inch in [NIST-19] Inch
Foot ft [NIST-19] Foot
Yard yd [NIST-19] Yard
Angle Degree ° DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Degree
Radiant*² rad DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Radiant
Steradiant*² sr DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Steradiant
Area Square millimetre*³ mm² DIN 1301-1:2010-10 SqareMillimeter
Square centimetre*³ cm² DIN 1301-1:2010-10 SquareCentimeter
Square metre*³ DIN 1301-1:2010-10 SquareMeter
Volume Kubikmillimetre*¹ mm³ DIN 1301-1:2010-10 CubicMillimeter
Cubic millimetre*¹ cm³ DIN 1301-1:2010-10 CubicCentimeter
Cubic centimetre*¹ dm³ DIN 1301-1:2010-10 CubicDecimeter
Cubic metre*¹ DIN 1301-1:2010-10 CubicMeter
Milliliter*³ ml DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Milliliter
Liter, Litre*¹ l, L DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Liter
Cubic inch*² in³ [NIST-19] CubicInch
Mass, weight Microgram*¹ µg DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Microgram
Milligram*¹ mg DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Milligram
Gram g DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Gram
Kilogram kg DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Kilogram
Ton t DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Ton
Gran/Grain gr [NIST-19] Grain
Dram dr [NIST-19] Dram
Ounce oz [NIST-19] Ounze
Pound lb [NIST-19] Pound
Pound-mass*² lb PoundMass
Tex*² tex = 1 g/km DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Tex
Milligrams per square metre*³ mg/m² MilligramPerSquareMeter
Force Newton*¹ N DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Newton
Decanewton*¹ daN DIN 1301-1:2010-10 DecaNewton
Kilonewton*¹ kN DIN 1301-1:2010-10 KiloNewton
Newton per metre*¹ N/m NewtonPerMeter
Pound-force*² lbf PoundForce
Pressure Millibar*¹ mbar DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Millibar
Bar*¹ bar DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Bar
Pascal*¹ Pa DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Pascal
Hectopascal*¹ hPa DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Hectopascal
Kilopascal*¹ kPa DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Kilopascal
Megapascal*¹ MPa DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Megapascal
Pound-force per square inch*² lbf/in² [NIST-19] PoundForceSquareInch
Zeit Millisecond*¹ ms DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Millisecond
Second*¹ s DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Second
Minute*¹ min DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Minute
Hour*¹ h DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Hour
Per millisecond*¹ 1/ms DIN 1301-1:2010-10 PerMillisecond
Per second*¹ 1/s DIN 1301-1:2010-10 PerSecond
Per minute*¹ 1/min DIN 1301-1:2010-10 PerMinute
Per hour*¹ 1/h DIN 1301-1:2010-10 PerHour
Speed Metre per second m/s DIN 1301-1:2010-10 MeterPerSecond
Metre per minute m/min DIN 1301-1:2010-10 MeterPerMinute
Kilometres per hour km/h DIN 1301-1:2010-10 KilometerPerHour
Flow rate Liters per minute*³ l/min DIN 1301-1:2010-10 LiterPerMinute
Cubic metres per second*³ m³/s CubicMeterPerSecond
Cubic metres per minute*³ m³/mih CubicMeterPerMinute
Mass flow Kilograms per second*³ l/min DIN 1301-1:2010-10 KilogramPerSecond
Energy, work, heat Newtonmetre Nm DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Newtonmeter
Joule*³ J DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Joule
Pound-force-inch*² lbf-i PoundForceInch
Pound-force-foot*² lbf-ft PoundForceFoot
Effort Milliwatt*³ mW DIN 1301-1:2010-10 MilliWatt
Watt*³ W DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Watt
Kilowatt*³ kW DIN 1301-1:2010-10 KiloWatt
Temperature Degrees Celsius °C DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Celsius
Degrees Fahrenheit °F [NIST-19] Fahrenheit
Kelvin*¹ K DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Kelvin
Electricity Volt*³ V DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Volt
Ampere*³ A DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Ampere
Ohm*³ Ω DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Ohm
Level Decibel*³ dB DIN 5493:2013-10 Decibel
Auxiliary units Number (of pieces)*³ pcs = Stk. Piece
Per million, Parts per million*¹ pm = ppm PerMillion
Percent*¹ % DIN 5466:1983-02 Percent
Mol*³ mol DIN 1301-1:2010-10 Mol
NIST-19: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: NIST Handbook 44 : Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices (Appendix C. General Tables of Units of Measurement) 2019.
*¹ Available from program version 1.2.0.23
*² Available from program version 1.3.9.5
*³ Available from program version 1.3.9.8




Numerical precision

The numerical precision is relevant for the representation of numerical values. If a technical fact is described with numerical values, usually in the form of physical quantities or →measurement sizes, the accuracy of the displayed number should be in the same order of magnitude as the inaccuracy of the measure itself.

For example, the maximum inaccuracy range of the value 23, if no further information is available, is 22.5 to <23.5. Finally, the value may have resulted from a rounding operation. The last significant digit, here the “3”, is the digit that was rounded or may have been rounded.

Value Number of relevant digits Rounding range (absolute inaccuracy range) Size of the absolute inaccuracy range Size of relative inaccuracy
23 2 22,5 to <23,5 1 4,35 %
2,3 2 2,25 to <2,35 0,1 4,35 %
23,0 3 22,95 to <23,05 0,1 0,435 %
2300 2 2250 to <2350 100 4,35 %
0,000230 3 0,0002295 to <0,0002305 0,000001 0,435 %

The number of significant or relevant digits in a decimal number can be identified as follows (see also “DIN EN ISO 80000-1:2013-08, Chapter 7.3.4 Deviation and uncertainty”):

  1. The number is viewed from left to right. The first non-zero digit is the first relevant digit.
  2. Following zeros are also relevant, especially if they are to the right of the decimal point.
  3. Zeros to the left of the comma are only relevant if at least one other digit, including zero, follows to the right of the comma.

The numerical accuracy common in technology (“slide rule accuracy”) is achieved by rounding a value so that three significant digits remain. Unless the first significant digit is a one, four significant digits should remain.




Project

Testing tasks are planned in infra CONVERT 2019 and are project based. A project contains the test plan versions, →Drawing sheets as well as project-related settings. This data is stored together in an ICPX file.

A project supports the versioning of →Test plans. Characteristics already identified and settings already made can be transferred from one test plan version into the next within a project.

Even if it is technically possible, a project should always only refer to an object that is subject to a test and, if necessary, follow-up tests. This may be, for example, the initial sampling of a product and its subsequent re-sampling (first-piece approvals, requalifications).




Simplified indications

By using a simplified specification, requirements for a geometry element are specified in simplified form and explained elsewhere in the drawing, for example next to a view or near the title block. This type of specification can be useful if there is not enough space available in a view or if a specification applies to several separate geometry elements and is specified more than once.

The following example shows the principle for surface specifications and geometric tolerance specifications.




Specification operators and modifiers (ISO GPS)

The ISO GPS standard system based on DIN EN ISO 8015 regulates the language with which requirements for the geometry of a product are communicated. With an entry – constructed from “specification elements” – on the technical drawing, a specification operator in the standards system is invoked. A specification operator collates rules (“operations”) that are used to allow all the contract parties to understand the requirements of a geometric element or the relationship between geometric elements.

The principle of standard setting applies here, namely the “default principle”. Unless indicated through the addition of supplementary information in the contract agreement, the specification operator only includes default operations in a fixed order according to ISO standards. The default is chosen so that the operations approximately correspond to the most commonly used procedure and conventional understanding in practice.

In the following image, the concept is illustrated using the shaft geometric element with a nominal diameter of 20 mm as an example. At first only the defaults specification is considered, as shown on the left side. The drawing entry specifies a “linear size element” according to DIN EN ISO 14405-1 of the type “cylinder”. The default specification operator demands consideration of the “local two-point size”: All independently determined individual distances from opposite lying points must lie within the tolerance range, i.e. according to tolerance code “h9” of DIN EN ISO 286-1 at an interval of between 19.948 mm and 20 mm. Five arbitrary two-point sizes on the non-ideal surface model are represented as a geometric equivalent.* One suitable means of verification (“verification operator”) for this specification would be to carry out a check using a go/no go gauge: 1) Pass check (go): Is the maximum material size exceeded?; 2) Fail check (no-go): Is the minimum material size undershot?

* The operations of the specification operator in detail: The extracted lateral surface is assigned an ideal cylinder using the least squares method (Gaussian). The extracted lateral surface is to be cut at each height perpendicular to the derived centreline of this associated cylinder. At each cutting plane, the surface line is assigned an ideal circle according to the Gaussian method. A horizontal line is generated through each point on the surface line and the circle midpoint. If there is exactly one second intersection point with the surface line with respect to the midpoint, the distance between the two surface line intersection points is the two-point size to be matched with the interval.

The deviation from the default setting can be identified using suitable specification modifiers (and/or abbreviations). In this way a “special specification operator” is obtained. In this example, the “E in circle” modifier symbol sets the envelope condition. The envelope condition requires that the evaluated geometry lies in an enveloping cylinder 20 mm in diameter and that all two-point sizes are greater than or equal to 19.948 mm. A suitable verification would be to test using a ring gauge or to carry out a no-go test using a go/no go gauge.

Below are examples of modifier text symbols with their meanings, such as those that can be assigned to a characteristic as property “modifiers” in infra CONVERT 2019.

Modifiers for linear sizes (according to DIN EN ISO 14405-1:2017-07; Characteristic classes: Length, diameter, spherical diameter)
LP Two-point size
LS Local spherical size
LL Local outer minimum material size
GG Gauss method association criterion
GX Maximum inscribed geometric element association criterion
GN Minimum circumscribed geometric element association criterion
GC Minimax association criterion
CC Circumference diameter (calculated size)
CA Area diameter (calculated size)
CV Volume diameter (calculated size)
SX Maximum rank-ordered size
SN Minimum rank-ordered size
SA Average rank-ordered size
SM Median rank-ordered size
SD Mid-range rank-ordered size
SR Range of rank-ordered sizes
SQ Standard deviation of sizes
E Envelope requirement
/Length Any limited part of the geometric element
ACS Any cross-section
SCS Specific fixed cross-section
ALS Any longitudinal section
Number x More than one geometric element
Assigned as the number of repetitions of the characteristic as a property.
CT Common tolerance
F Condition of the free state
Modifiers for angular sizes (according to DIN EN ISO 14405-3:2017-07; Characteristic class: Angle)
LC Two-line angular size with minimax association criterion
LG Two-line angular size with least squares association criterion
GG Global angular size with least squares association criterion
GC Global angular size with minimax association criterion
SX Maximum angular size
SN Minimum angular size
SA Average angular size
SM Median angular size
SD Mid-range angular size
SR Range of angular sizes
SQ Standard deviation of angular size
SCS Specific fixed cross-section
CT Common tolerated angular size element
F Condition of the free state
Modifiers for geometric features (according to DIN EN ISO 1101:2017-09; Characteristic classes: Geometrical tolerancing (form, orientation, location and run-out))
CZ Combined zone
SZ Separate zones
UZ Specified tolerance zone offset
OZ Unspecified linear tolerance zone offset (offset zone)
VA Unspecified angular tolerance zone offset (variable angle)
C Minimax (Chebyshev) feature
G Least squares (Gaussian) feature
N Minimum circumscribed feature
T Tangent feature
X Maximum inscribed feature
A Derived feature
P Projected tolerance zone
C Minimax (Chebyshev) feature without constraint
CE Minimax (Chebyshev) feature with external material constraint
CI Minimax (Chebyshev) feature with internal material constraint
G Least squares (Gaussian) feature without constraint
GE Least squares (Gaussian) feature with external material constraint
GI Least squares (Gaussian) feature with internal material constraint
N Minimum circumscribed feature
X Maximum inscribed feature
T Total range of deviations
P Peak height
V Valley depth
Q Standard deviation
UF United feature
LD Minor diameter
MD Major diameter
PD Pitch diameter
ACS Any cross section
M Maximum material requirement
L Least material requirement
R Reciprocity requirement
F Free state condition (non-rigid parts)
CF Contacting feature
E Envelope requirement




Stamp/stamps

Functions and properties of products are agreed and documented between customer and supplier in specifications, including →Technical drawings and Specification sheets. Test processes are then implemented to compare the functions and properties of the manufactured samples, prototypes, products etc. with the specifications and the results recorded in test reports. The connection between the required and tested characteristic must be able to be made absolutely clear in this instance. Specifications put together in lists (e.g. specification sheets) make referencing simpler due to the entries that are already in place. Graphical presentation formats, such as in technical drawings, generally do not contain any clear tagging of individual →Test characteristics, when they leave the design office. Adding identifiers to the respective characteristic has proven to be viable (see DIN 6550:2006).

A characteristic identifier consists of the graphic characteristic symbol and the, mostly numeric, characteristic number. A clear correlation to the test characteristic is established together with the part number of the technical drawing. Usually when the characteristic attribute is changed (due to a change in the drawing) the same characteristic number remains, the number is blocked on deletion and the next previously unused characteristic number is assigned once a characteristic is added.

Characteristic identifiers were originally, and continue to remain to date, attached to paper drawings manually using a stamp tool and the requirements manually transferred in →Test plans. The process of attaching characteristic markings and transferring characteristic attributes into the test plan has been abbreviated to Stamping since then. The characteristic identifier is designated as Stamp in infra CONVERT 2019. The stamp is formed from Stamp symbol and Stamp inscription (alphanumeric).




Characteristic categories, for example, can be made visible in infra CONVERT 2019 by assigning them with one of the following six stamp symbol shapes as well as a symbol color.




Tag

Test characteristics can also be assigned individual tags in infra CONVERT 2019 in addition to →Categories. While categories indicate a basic handling of test characteristics (relevance for testing, based on standard specifications), tags are intended to support the test process by increasing the clarity. Thus, tags may refer to measuring stations, measuring devices or test intensity for example.

Assigned tags are exported by infra CONVERT 2019 in the test plan, provided that they are supported by export format. Tagged test characteristics are identified on the drawing by coloration of the stamp.

Example Graduation of special characteristics




Test plan

A test plan is a working instruction for a (quality) test. A major component in this respect is a compilation of the requirements on the object to be tested (or then process), e. g. in the form of a list of →Test characteristics.

The test plans of a project can be retrieved in infra CONVERT 2019 via the Project overview (see User interface > Function window > Project overview). The list of characteristics assigned to a test plan can then be viewed in the Characteristics overview function window (see User interface > Function window > Characteristics overview). The properties of each of the characteristics contained therein are displayed in the Characteristics properties function window (see User interface > Function window > Characteristics properties).

A test plan is exported from infra CONVERT 2019, e.g. for further processing in a →CAQ system, in the form of an exchange format (JSONV1 or DFD, see Administrator Guide infra CONVERT 2019 > Export).

A test plan can contain the following information, for example:




Tolerance table

The Tolerance table is the section of a norm that governs the general dimensional, shape and/or positional tolerance for workpieces. The limit values are assigned to nominal dimensional ranges within the table, whereby the limit values are further graded based on the Tolerance classes (also: Tolerance grades or Tolerance series), e.g. “fine, medium, coarse, very coarse” or “intrinsic, not intrinsic”.

General tolerances for length measurements, angle measurements and edge dimensions (curve radii and chamfers) can be automatically assigned to the nominal dimensions in infra CONVERT 2019 based on the loaded tolerance tables.

Legal note You do not acquire any user rights to the tolerance tables contained in the infra CONVERT 2019 software upon purchase. You yourself must obtain lawful access to the corresponding texts, such as the norms and other agreements. You have the option of creating tolerance tables yourself (see Administrator Guide infra CONVERT 2019 > Configuration and import > Tolerance tables) or have them created by us based on your data.

Go to previous page
More > Create test plans from a collective drawing



en/infra-convert/user/terms.txt · Last modified: 2019/11/26 08:34 by me